This book deals with the problem of pricing passenger and freight transportation within Europe. The contributors argue that current legislation affecting pricing and regulation is increasingly less successful in dealing with market failures and externalities such as congestion, air pollution, noise and accidents. Technological progress and greater European operation has brought increased scope for the reform of transport policies. "Reforming Transport Pricing in the European Union" includes an economic diagnosis of the pricing problem, proposals for new pricing and regulation structures together with a quantified assessment of the likely impact for several European cities and countries. The effects of traffic volume, cost and overall economic welfare are computed for all forms of passenger and freight transport in urban and non-urban areas. The book analyzes various alternative policies including combinations of higher fuel excise, alternative parking policies, cordon pricing, electronic road pricing and emissions regulation. The research is based on a set of formal models which facilitate the analysis and comparison of results. The range of policies studied and the variety of methodologies employed, should ensure that this book be of benefit to European and national transport policymakers, transport economists and transport consultants.
EUCOTAX Series on European Taxation Volume 50
The OECD's Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project promises to make effective inroads into the much criticized corporate tax strategy known as aggressive transfer pricing, whereby the profitability of subsidiaries in different jurisdictions is "managed" via mispricing with the intent of minimizing the corporation's overall tax burden. Although the OECD BEPS project is an ongoing endeavor, its accomplishments to date and developing trends are discernible. This book, including contributions by outstanding and renowned transfer pricing experts both from practice and academia, analyses these trends, and proposes reforms which would ensure that transfer pricing outcomes are better aligned with economic activities and value creation, which achieves a more equitable distribution of profits among different countries.
Each chapter is dedicated to specific sections of the OECD's BEPS Action Plan. Among the topics and issues covered are the following:
Within these topics, measures to identify the commercial and financial relationships inside multinational enterprises, to accurately delineate actual transactions, as well as guidance on defining risk and its allocation among entities of a multinational enterprise are discussed.
The book is based on papers presented and discussed at the first Global Transfer Pricing Conference hosted in February 2016 by the WU Transfer Pricing Center at the Institute for Austrian and International Tax Law at WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business).
The most up-to-date and thorough consideration of transfer pricing yet published, this book will prove invaluable for all parties currently facing questions related to transfer pricing in a post-BEPS world, especially those in charge of finding an ideal answer to them: academics, practitioners (including in-house and advisory counsel), international organizations, CEOs and CFOs of multinational enterprises, and government officials who are tax and transfer pricing experts.
This new edition of Water and Wastewater Finance and Pricing: The Changing Landscape analyses the process for developing an effective financial plan, focusing on components such as public and private sector financing, credit facilities, system development charges, interest rates, cost of debt issuance, and market conditions.
Author: George A. Raftelis, Raftelis Financial Consultants Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA.