An earthquake. A conflict. A tsunami. A coup. Increasingly, non-international armed conflicts send thousands of civilians fleeing across borders to safety, whilst (natural) disasters hit areas of the world where resources to address the calamity are scarce. Coinciding emergencies or deliberate obstruction by authorities exacerbate the already dire situation. A humanitarian crisis often ensues. The result of these crises is an immediate and large-scale need for food, water, shelter and medicine: in other words, the provision of humanitarian assistance. Whereas the need for such assistance may be ascertainable, its provision is not without legal and political challenges, and deprivation of aid is unfortunately all too common. Looking at these challenges and circumstances, several issues can be discerned regarding the legal framework governing the provision of humanitarian assistance. These include the fragmentation or conflict of applicable norms, developments within the international legal realm regarding the role of the individual in the receipt of aid and in the responsibility for its provision, as well as the changing nature of conflicts in the world and actors partaking in these conflicts. State sovereignty must furthermore continuously be taken into consideration as part of this legal framework, from the viewpoint of the provision of assistance, its denial and enforcement. This book aims to systematically address these challenges, with an overarching approach to the provision of humanitarian assistance. Part I sets out the boundaries of the existing framework and addresses the relevant concepts pertaining to the delivery of emergency aid. Part II assesses the currently existing rights of the affected persons and duties of the affected state in the delivery of humanitarian assistance, whereas Part III addresses enforcement possibilities in the absence of (sufficient) provision by the affected state. Lastly, recommendations are provided to ensure the protection of those who need it most. (Series: School of Human Rights Research, Volume 76) [Subject: Human Rights Law, International Law]
Inaugurating Greenw4ood's Reference Guides to the United States Constitution series, this superlative guide to the Sixth Amendment is the first to survey the legal guarantee of counsel's assistance since 1963's Gideon ruling. The vast majority of important, even landmark cases regarding the right to counsel were decided after that pivotal ruling, making this the definitive work on the topic. Tomkovicz offers a concise yet substantial account of the historical development of the right to counsel in England and America. Included are: *A brief history of the topic *Lengthy and sophisticated analysis of the current state of the law *A bibliographical essay organizing and evaluating scholarly material for further research *A table of cases *Index A thorough analysis of the relevant U.S. Supreme Court's doctrine gives concrete content to the right to assistance of defense counsel. Scholars and students of the U.S. Constitution, along with attorneys and lay readers, will gain a rich understanding of the meaning and importance of the Sixth Amendment, and a comprehensive overview of a cornerstone of America's constitutional and legal order.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that there are major gaps in International Humanitarian Law and Public International Law in the area of humanitarian assistance. In response international organizations such as the UN and the EU are developing their own legal frameworks for humanitarian assistance and the body of customary law and so-called international disaster response law is growing steadily. This however shows that a coherent body of law is far from being a given. The legal reality of international law pertaining to emergency response is rather broadly spread over various international legal fields and related documents, covering situations of armed conflict and natural disasters. This book is one of the first attempts of linking different legal areas in the growing field of what could be called the international law of humanitarian assistance.